s9.1


S9(1)                  Scheme 9 from Empty Space                 S9(1)



NAME
          s9 - Scheme Interpreter

USAGE
          s9 [-hv?] [-i name|-] [-gqu] [-d image] [-e expr]
             [-k size[m]] [-l prog] [-n size[m]] [-r expr]
             [-f prog [args]] [-- [args]] [prog [args]]

DESCRIPTION
          Scheme  9 from Empty Space is an interpreter for R4RS Scheme
          with some additional procedures for accessing  typical  Unix
          system  calls  and  Unix  and  Curses  library functions (if
          compiled-in). The s9 command starts the interpreter.

OPTIONS
          -h, -v, or -?
              Display a brief summary of options.
          -i name | -
              Load alternative image file `name.image'. When no  image
              file can be found, try to load `name.scm'. The file will
              be  searched  in  the  entire  S9FES_LIBRARY_PATH   (see
              below).  When  this option is used, it must be the first
              one of the s9 command.
              When `-' is specified as name, no  heap  image  will  be
              loaded,  and  the  core  library  will  be read from the
              source file `s9.scm'.
          -d file
              Dump heap image to file and exit.
          -e expr
              Read  expression  from  argument,  evaluate,  and  print
              value.  Multiple  -e  options  may  be given, which will
              evaluate from left to right.  Interactive mode will  not
              be entered.
          -f program [argument ...]
              Run  program  and  exit (implies -q). When there are any
              arguments, they are passed to the  program,  where  they
              can  be  extracted  from  the *arguments* variable. This
              option must be the last one. The -f flag is optional.
          -g[g]
              Print GC  summaries.  A  single  `g'  will  report  pool
              growth,  a  second `g' will also include data about pool
              usage after each collection.
          -k N[m]
              Set vector limit to N kilo (or mega) nodes (-k  0  means
              no limit; use with care!).
          -l program
              Load  program  before entering the REPL or processing -f
              (may be repeated).
          -n N[m]
              Set node limit to N kilo (or mega) nodes (-n 0 means  no
              limit; use with care!).
          -q
              Be quiet: skip banners and prompts, exit on errors.
          -r expr
              Like   -e,   but  no  value  will  print.  Used  to  run
              expressions for effect.
          -u


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              Short for -k 0 -n 0 (use unlimited memory).
          -- [argument ...]
              Arguments following -- are not interpreted by S9fES, but
              bound  to  the *arguments* variable instead. This option
              must be the last one.

ONLINE HELP
          When the interpreter is running and the default  heap  image
          is  loaded, just type (help) or ,h to invoke the online help
          system.  When the online help system is not loaded, you will
          have to run the following command first:

          (load-from-library "help.scm")

META COMMANDS
          In  order  to  facilitate  the invocation of frequently-used
          top-level  procedures,  s9  provides  the  following   "meta
          commands"  (they  work  only when entered directly at the s9
          prompt):

              ,a text  =  (apropos "text")
              ,h text  =  (help "text")
              ,l file  =  (load-from-library "file")
              ,q       =  (sys:exit)

          The arguments of ,a and ,h are optional.

ADDITIONS
          S9fES supports nestable block comments of the form

              #| comment ... |#.

          Square brackets may be used in the places of parentheses:

              (cond [(foo) (bar)]).

          The same type of bracket must be used  on  both  ends  of  a
          list.

          These S9fES procedures are not in R4RS:

          (argv integer)  ==>  string | #f
              Retrieve  the  value of the given command line argument.
              Return #f, if there are less than  integer+1  arguments.
              Arguments start at 0.

          (bit-op integer1 integer2 integer3 ...)  ==>  integer | #f
              Implement  a variety of bitwise operations. See the bit-
              op help page for details.

          (delete-file string)  ==>  unspecific
              Delete the file specified in the string argument. If the
              file  does  not  exist  or  cannot be deleted, report an
              error.

          (environ string)  ==>  string | #f
              Retrieve the value of the  given  environment  variable.
              Return #f, if the variable is undefined.


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          (error string)         ==>  undefined
          (error string object)  ==>  undefined
              Print an error message of the form error: string: object
              and terminate program execution.

          (eval object1)          ==>  object
          (eval object1 object2)  ==>  object
              Evaluate object1 in the current environment  and  return
              its  normal  form.   If object2 is also specified, it is
              ignored.

          (exponent real)  ==>  integer
              Extract the exponent part from a real number.

          (file-exists? string)  ==>  boolean
              Return #t if the file specified in the  string  argument
              exists and otherwise #f.

          (fold-left proc base list ...)  ==>  object
              Combine  the  elements of the lists using proc.  Combine
              elements  left-associatively.   Base  is  the   leftmost
              element.

          (fold-right proc base list ...)  ==>  object
              Combine  the  elements of the lists using proc.  Combine
              elements right-associatively.   Base  is  the  rightmost
              element.

          (gensym)         ==>  symbol
          (gensym symbol)  ==>  symbol
          (gensym string)  ==>  symbol
              Return  a fresh symbol. When a string or symbol argument
              is given, use it as prefix for the fresh symbol.

          (load-from-library string)  ==>  unspecific
              Attempt to load the file string from each  directory  of
              S9FES_LIBRARY_PATH.

          (locate-file string)  ==>  string | #f
              Search  for  the  file  string  in  each   directory  of
              S9FES_LIBRARY_PATH in sequence.  When the  file  can  be
              located, return its full path, else return #f.

          (macro-expand object)  ==>  object
          (macro-expand-1 object)  ==>  object
              If  object  is  a  list  resembling a macro application,
              return  the  expanded  form,  else  return  the  object.
              Macro-expand-1  expands  macros  only  once while macro-
              expand expands them recursively.

          (mantissa real)  ==>  integer
              Extract the mantissa part from a real number.

          (print object ...)  ==>  unspecific
              Write multiple objects separated by spaces.




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          (require-extension ext ...)  ==>  unspecific
              Require the named extensions to be  compiled-in.  Signal
              an  error  if  not  all  of  the required extensions are
              present.  Ext may be of the form (or ext1 ext2 ...).  In
              this case, it is sufficient if at least one of the given
              exts is present.

          (reverse! list)  ==>  list
              Reverse list destructively and return the reverse  list.

          (set-input-port! input-port)  ==>  unspecific
              Destructively set the current input port.

          (set-output-port! output-port)  ==>  unspecific
              Destructively set the current output port.

          (stats form)  ==>  form
              Evaluate the given form and return a list containing its
              normal form plus a summary  of  the  resources  used  to
              compute that normal form:

                  - reduction steps
                  - conses allocated
                  - total nodes allocated
                  - garbage collections

              Each  resource  count  will  be  returned  as a group of
              integers representing ones,  thousands,  millions,  etc.
              Note  that  form  must be quoted or it will be evaluated
              before passing it to stats.

          (symbols)  ==>  list
              Return a list of all defined symbols.

          (system string)  ==>  number
              Run the given shell command and return its exit code.

          (vector-append vector ...)  ==>  vector
              Return a fresh vector containing  the  concatenation  of
              the given vectors.

          (vector-copy vector)                           ==>  vector
          (vector-copy vector integer)                   ==>  vector
          (vector-copy vector integer1 integer2)         ==>  vector
          (vector-copy vector integer1 integer2 object)  ==>  vector
              Return  a  copy  of  the  given vector. When integer1 is
              specified, skip  the  given  number  of  elements.  When
              integer2  is also specified, copy elements from integer1
              up to,  but  not  including,  integer2.   When  integer2
              exceeds  the size of the original vector, add unspecific
              slots to the copy. When an  object  argument  is  given,
              fill extra slots with that argument.

          (void)  ==>  unspecific
              Return an unspecific value.

          Refer  to  the  help  pages for descriptions of the Scheme 9



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          extension procedures.

SPECIAL VARIABLES
          These variables are  predefined  in  the  dynamic  top-level
          scope of the interpreter.

          ** (form)
              The   normal   form  of  the  expression  most  recently
              evaluated at the top level.
          *arguments* (list of strings)
              A list of command line arguments passed  to  the  Scheme
              program (not to the interpreter), i.e. the args in s9 -f
              file args.
          *extensions* (list of symbols)
              Compiled-in extensions.
          *host-system* (symbol)
              The host system running the s9 interpreter: unix, plan9,
              or #F (unknown).
          *library-path* (string)
              A  verbatim  copy  of the S9FES_LIBRARY_PATH environment
              variable (see below).
          *loading* (boolean)
              Set to #t when loading a file, else #f.

MACROS
          A macro is a procedure that is applied  to  its  unevaluated
          arguments.  The macro application is replaced with the value
          returned  by  the  procedure.   This  happens   before   the
          expression containing the macro application is evaluated, so
          a macro rewrites its own application:

          (define-syntax (when p . c)
            `(if ,p (begin ,@c)))
          (macro-expand '(when (= 1 1) (display "true") (newline) #t))
            ==>  (if (= 1 1)
                     (begin (display "true")
                            (newline)
                            #t))
          (when (= 1 1) 1 2 3)  ==>  3

          The define-syntax form introduces a new macro:

          (define-syntax name procedure)        ==>  unspecific
          (define-syntax (name args ...) body)  ==>  unspecific

          Both of these forms introduce the keyword name and  bind  it
          to  a procedure. The first form requires the second argument
          to be a procedure. Like in define forms the  second  variant
          implies a procedure definition.

          Macros  may contain applications of macros that were defined
          earlier.  Macros may not  recurse  directly,  but  they  may
          implement  recursion internally using letrec or by rewriting
          their own applications. The following  macro,  for  example,
          does not work, because d is undefined in the body of d:

          (define-syntax (d x) (and (pair? x) (d (cdr x)))) ; wrong



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          The following version does work, though:

          (define-syntax (d x) (and (pair? x) `(d ,(cdr x)))) ; OK

          The body of define-syntax may be a syntax-rules transformer,
          as described in R4RS, if the syntax-rules extension has been
          loaded.

TECHNICAL DETAILS
          S9fES  is  a tree-walking interpreter using deep binding and
          hashed environments. It  employs  an  extremely  reliable[1]
          constant-space mark and sweep garbage collector with in-situ
          string and vector pool  compaction.  Memory  pools  grow  on
          demand.  The  interpreter  uses  arbitrary-precision integer
          arithmetics and decimal-based real number arithmetics.

INTERPRETER START-UP
          When the s9 interpreter is started, the following steps will
          be performed in this order:

          Load library.
              The interpreter searches its library path (either built-
              in or specified in  the  S9FES_LIBRARY_PATH  environment
              variable)  for  a  heap image file or the library source
              code. The heap image file is the name of the interpreter
              with  a  .image suffix appended. An alternative name can
              be specified with the  -i  option  (see  OPTIONS).   The
              default  library source code is named s9.scm.  First all
              directories of the library path are searched for images,
              then the directories are searched for library sources.

          Initialize extensions.
              Any   extensions   compiled  into  the  interpreter  are
              initialized by calling  the  nullary  procedure  ext:ext
              (where ext is the name of the extension). The procedures
              are optional. The last `extension' being initialized  is
              S9  itself,  so  when a procedure named s9:s9 exists, it
              will be called at this point.

          Evaluate command line options.
              When a -l file option is found, the program contained in
              the  given  file  will  be  loaded.  When a -f file args
              option is found, the program contained in the file  will
              be  run  and  then S9 will exit.  Args will be passed to
              the program.

          Enter REPL.
              Interactive mode is only entered, when no -e, -f, or  -r
              option was given and no program was specified.

ALLOCATION STRATEGY
          The  S9fES  memory pools grow exponentially until the memory
          limit is reached. When the limit  is  reached,  the  current
          computation  is  aborted.  A  memory  limit can be specified
          using the -k, -n, and -u command line options. The limit  is
          specified  in  units  of  1024  nodes/cells  (or in units of
          1024*1024 nodes/cells by appending an m suffix).



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          Note that computations may abort before the limit is reached
          due  to  the  way  the  pool  grows. Use the -g command line
          option to experiment with pool sizes.
          Specifying a limit of zero (or using the -u option) disables
          the   memory  limit  completely  and  the  interpreter  will
          allocate as much memory as it can get.  This  option  should
          be used with care.

LIMITATIONS
          These parts of R4RS are not implemented:

          I/O: char-ready?  (this is in the sys-unix extension).
          Transcripts: transcript-off, transcript-on.
          Rational and complex numbers and related procedures.
          The atan procedure does not accept a second argument.

BUGS
          You  may  not quasiquote quasiquote unless in unquote (e.g.:
          ``x does not work, but `,`x does).
          The macro expander will expand (x) in (cond (x)), if x is  a
          macro.
          Syntax-rules is not fully hygienic.
          Call/cc  must  be  the only argument when used in lambda (or
          derived binding syntax, such as let).   Not  observing  this
          rule will break the interpreter.

FILES
          @S9DIR@
              The S9fES procedure library (source code).
          @S9DIR@/s9.image
              The interpreter heap image.
          *.scm
              Scheme source code.

ENVIRONMENT
          S9FES_LIBRARY_PATH
              A  colon-separated  list  of  directories  which will be
              searched for the s9  library  when  the  interpreter  is
              launched.  The  same directories will be searched by the
              locate-file procedure.
              Default: .:~/.s9fes:@S9DIR@

SIGNALS
          SIGINT
              Abort input or terminate program execution.
          SIGQUIT
              Terminate the interpreter process (emergency exit).
          SIGTERM
              Silently terminate the interpreter process.
          "interrupt"
              On Plan 9, receiving an interrupt note will abort  input
              or terminate program execution, as SIGINT would on Unix.

FOOTNOTES
          [1] See comp.lang.scheme Usenet message
              <vhtzl9lupyp.fsf@maharal.csail.mit.edu>
              (Thu, 27 Aug 2009 13:27:42 -0400) and its follow-ups.



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REFERENCES
          The Revised^4 Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme.
              http://www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/~jaffer/r4rs_toc.html

          Scheme 9 from Empty Space -- A Guide to Implementing  Scheme
          in C.
              Available at Lulu.com, see http://www.t3x.org

AUTHOR
          Nils M Holm

















































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